Is it safe? Yes! Is it compliant? Yes!

The two questions that continuously arise during aviation conversations are the same two that drive everything APG does: “Is it safe?” and “Is it compliant?”

APG understands the need to be in full compliance with aviation regulations. We support the mission to maintain a safe flying environment through regulations and regulatory best practice guidelines.

The Runway Analysis service provided by APG determines maximum allowable takeoff and landing gross weights. These weights are based upon specific aircraft/engine combinations, aircraft configurations, runway characteristics, environmental conditions, and the regulatory requirements under which the aircraft is operated.

Our Runway Analysis solutions use computer programs developed by APG or by aircraft manufacturers. These programs are based upon the appropriate Airplane Flight Manual (AFM). The performance outlined in the AFM assumes a worst-case scenario of an engine failure at the V1 speed.

Two sets of information are required to run the performance programs. The first is the operational parameters as specified by the customer. The operational parameters include flap settings, acceleration altitude, engine bleed configuration, and inoperative components. The second source is the airport characteristics. Airport characteristics include (but are not limited to) airport elevation, runway lengths, declared distances (TORA, TODA, ASDA, LDA), and surveyed obstructions. The airport characteristics are gathered and compiled by APG, then updated as necessary to ensure they are current.

The performance programs are developed utilizing the proper AFM tables to determine the maximum allowable takeoff and landing weights in conjunction with the runway and obstacle characteristics. By utilizing an electronic database of obstructions and aircraft-specific performance data, APG is able to tailor special Engine-Out Departure Procedures (EOPs) to optimize maximum allowable takeoff weight and payload for the specific aircraft/engine combination.

The maximum weight calculations account for the most limiting requirement of field length available, minimum controllability, maximum brake energy, maximum tire speed, climb gradient requirements, takeoff thrust time limitations, level off altitude limitations, and obstacle clearance.

For a detailed description of compliance and operating requirements, please select your relevant regulatory agency from this list below. If you do not see your regulatory agency listed, contact APG by phone at +1 303 539 0410 or email at support@apgdata.com.


APG’s data service products comply with the regulations of the FAA and EASA, as well as other regulatory agencies.

Federal Aviation Administration

Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) defines the requirements for Runway Analysis and Weight & Balance. We have listed below the CFRs/Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) that are met when using APG‘s Runway Analysis and Weight & Balance services:

All APG products and services adhere to FAA regulatory guidance and incorporate non-regulatory guidance when appropriate. For a detailed description, click HERE.

FAR 121.189 and FAR 135.379 specify a lateral distance, or corridor, from which obstructions must be cleared vertically. The FAA obstruction clearance corridor commences at the runway end with a half-width of 200 feet and is increased to a half-width of 300 feet at the airfield boundary. The corridor continues in this manner to the end of the takeoff flight path segment, which occurs when the aircraft reaches 1500 feet above the airport elevation.

The FAA has published Advisory Circular (AC) 120-91, which incorporates an expansion of this 300-foot half-width corridor; the expansion commences at a distance of 4800 feet from the runway end and expands to a maximum half-width of 2000 feet at a rate of .0625 times the distance from the end of the runway for straight-out departures. If a track change greater than 15 degrees is required, the corridor expands further: the expansion commences at the beginning of the turn segment and not less than a half-width of 300 feet, then expands at a rate of .125 times the distance from the end of the runway to a maximum half-width of 3000 feet.

For horizontal obstacle clearance corridors that include an Engine-Out Departure Procedure (EOP), APG utilizes the lateral clearance area defined by the area analysis method in Advisory Circular (AC) 120-91. The obstacle corridor extends 1) from the departure end of the runway to 30 NM for a straight-out departure, or 2) to the end of the procedure for a departure procedure. The corridor continues in this manner to the end of the takeoff flight path segment. Because different aircraft types reach the end of the takeoff flight path (1500 feet) at various distances from the runway end, APG analyzes terrain and obstacles to the increased distance of 30 NM or the end of the departure procedure.

When utilizing straight-out obstruction clearance requirements, the net flight path must clear all obstacles within the specified horizontal corridor by an increment of 35 feet vertically. When a heading change in excess of 15 degrees is required, the 35-foot obstacle clearance requirement is increased to 50 feet for all obstacles after the turn is commenced.

An engine failure during takeoff is a non-normal condition that takes precedence over noise abatement, air traffic, SIDs, departure procedures, and other normal operating considerations. Operators must comply with these requirements for the development of takeoff performance data and procedures. However, if a special Engine-Out Departure Procedure is developed that coincides with either a SID or an obstacle departure procedure ground track, the resulting maximum allowable takeoff weights will comply with the regulatory requirements regarding “engine-out” obstacle clearance along a similar flight path to the TERPS/PANS-OPS specified departure profile. Small variations between the procedures may exist. For example, APG typically directs the pilot to climb to a location defined by a navaid, while the SID may use a climb at a standard rate to a predetermined altitude. Defining the flight path by a fix rather than a height allows for a predictable flight path, the optimization of takeoff weight, and an increase in operational safety.

 

The European Aviation Safety Agency

Air OPS Regulation (EU) 965/2012 defines the requirements for Runway Analysis and Weight & Balance. We have listed below the subparts that are met when using APG‘s Runway Analysis and Weight & Balance services:

APG‘s products adhere to EASA regulatory standards. For a detailed description, click HERE.

Air OPS Regulation (EU) 965/2012 Subpart C, Section 1, Chapter 2 specifies a lateral distance, or corridor, from which obstructions must be cleared vertically. The EASA obstruction clearance corridor commences at the TODA end with a half-width of 90 meters and expands from 90 meters to a half-width of 600 meters at a rate of .125 times the distance from the end of the clearway. If a track change greater than 15 degrees is required, the corridor expands further: the expansion commences at the beginning of the turn segment and continues to a maximum half-width of 900 meters at a rate of .125 times the distance from the end of the clearway. The obstacle corridor extends from the departure end of the runway to 1) 30 NM for a straight-out departure, or 2) the end of the procedure for a departure procedure (DP).

When utilizing straight-out obstruction clearance requirements, the net flight path must clear all obstacles within the specified horizontal corridor by an increment of 35 feet vertically. When a heading change in excess of 15 degrees is required, the 35-foot obstacle clearance requirement is increased to 50 feet for all obstacles after the turn is commenced.

An engine failure during takeoff is a non-normal condition that takes precedence over noise abatement, air traffic, SIDs, departure procedures, and other normal operating considerations. Operators must comply with these requirements for the development of takeoff performance data and procedures. However, if a special Engine-Out Departure Procedure (EOP) is developed that coincides with either a SID or an obstacle departure procedure ground track, the resulting maximum allowable takeoff weights will comply with the regulatory requirements regarding “engine-out” obstacle clearance along a similar flight path to the TERPS/PANS-OPS specified departure profile. Small variations between the procedures may exist. For example, APG typically directs the pilot to climb to a location defined by a navaid, while the SID may use a climb at a standard rate to a predetermined altitude. Defining the flight path by a fix rather than a height allows for a predictable flight path, the optimization of takeoff weight, and an increase in operational safety.

Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority

CASA CAO Part 20.7.1B defines the requirements for Runway Analysis and Weight & Balance. APG‘s Runway Analysis and Weight & Balance services adhere to the following subparts:

APG‘s products comply with CASA regulatory guidance. For a detailed description, click HERE.

CASA CAO 20.7.1B specifies a lateral distance, or corridor, from which obstructions must be cleared vertically. The CASA obstruction clearance corridor commences at the TODA end with a half-width of 90 meters and expands to a half-width of 600 meters at a rate of .125 times the distance from the end of the clearway. If a track change greater than 15 degrees is required, the corridor expands further: the expansion commences at the beginning of the turn segment and continues to a maximum half-width of 900 meters at a rate of .125 times the distance from the end of the clearway.

The corridor continues in this manner to the end of the takeoff flight path segment. For a straight-out departure, the takeoff flight path segment ends in a holding pattern that is entered at 20 NM from the departure end of the runway (DER). The holding fix is the point along the extended centerline at a distance of 20 NM from the runway end. The straight-out hold will always be left turns in 5 NM legs with an inbound heading that matches the extended centerline of the departure runway. For a turn procedure, the takeoff flight path segment ends at a holding pattern defined within the procedure. It is the pilot’s responsibility to climb in the holding pattern to the minimum safe altitude.

When utilizing straight-out obstruction clearance requirements, the net flight path must clear all obstacles within the specified horizontal corridor by an increment of 35 feet vertically. When a heading change in excess of 15 degrees is required, the 35-foot obstacle clearance requirement is increased to 50 feet for all obstacles after the turn is commenced.

An engine failure during takeoff is a non-normal condition that takes precedence over noise abatement, air traffic, SIDs, departure procedures, and other normal operating considerations. Operators must comply with these requirements for the development of takeoff performance data and procedures. However, if a special Engine-Out Departure Procedure is developed that coincides with either a SID or an obstacle departure procedure ground track, the resulting maximum allowable takeoff weights will comply with the regulatory requirements regarding “engine-out” obstacle clearance along a similar flight path to the TERPS/PANS-OPS specified departure profile. Small variations between the procedures may exist. For example, APG typically directs the pilot to climb to a location defined by a navaid, while the SID may use a climb at a standard rate to a predetermined altitude. Defining the flight path by a fix rather than a height allows for a predictable flight path, the optimization of takeoff weight, and an increase in operational safety.

Additional Regulatory Agencies

APG can help you meet the requirements of many regulatory agencies worldwide, including Transport Canada (TC), the Hong Kong CAD, the Mexican Directorate General of Civil Aeronautics (Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil, or DGAC), CAA New Zealand, and more.

If you have questions about compliance with a specific regulatory agency, please contact us by phone at +1 303 539 0410 or email at support@apgdata.com